Mountain School at Home ACHOTUS Ep2: George Holmes

Enjoy the second episode in our series on the cultural history of the Upper Skagit Valley in the North Cascades. It was written and produced by Jillian Ross, a Mountain School instructor, to introduce us to George Holmes. Holmes began life as a slave in Virginia, but found freedom, respect and fortunes as a miner in the North Cascades in 1895. (Find episode 1 on Indigenous Presence here; all future episodes collected in this YouTube playlist).


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Glossary of Terms:

  • Time Immemorial: The very distant past – longer than humans have been able to record time and historical eras, longer than what human memory allows
  • Sharecropping: A type of farming in which tenant farmers rent plots of land from a landowner in return for a portion of their crop, which is given to the landowner at the end of each year.
  • Mason: A builder and worker in stone
  • Union: An organized association of workers, often in a trade or profession, formed to protect and further their rights and interests
  • Sundown town: An all-white municipality or neighborhood in the United States that practice a form of segregation by excluding non-whites via some combination of discriminatory local laws, intimidation, and violence
  • Hydraulic system: A system operated by a liquid (often water) moving in a confined space under pressure

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